گرامر ۳

۲۳                                                                Term Two

Past Continuous Tense (زمان گذشته استمرای)

حال استمراری را در گذشته آموختیم.اینک به گذشته استمراری می پردازیم.گذشته استمراری برای بیان کاری است که در وقت معینی در گذشته در حال انجام بوده است :

 

This morning when I got up ,it was reining. امروز صبح وقتی از خواب برخاستم باران می بارید
We were living in Ahwaz when the war began. وقتی که  جنگ شروع شد ما در اهواز زندگی می کردیم.
The children were watching a film when I arrived. وقتی وارد شدم بچه ها مشغول تماشای فیلم بودند.

 

می بینیم که در همه این جمله ها به آخر مصدر فعل   ing آمده و از was و  were که مشتقات گذشته فعل  be هستند استفاده شد است.چند مثال:

 

مفرد جمع
I was drinking tea. من مشغول نوشیدن چای بودم. We were talking. مشغول صحبت بودیم.
You were playing chess. شما مشغول بازی شطرنج بودید. You were listening. شما گوش می کردید.
He was reading a book. او مشغول  کتاب خواندن بود.  

They were watching TV.

 

آنها تلویزیون می دیدند.

She was cooking dinner. او مشغول پختن شام بود.
It (the bird) was singing. پرنده مشغول (آواز) خواندن بود
She was cooking dinner. او مشغول پختن شام بود.
It (the bird) was singing. پرنده مشغول (آواز) خواندن بود

 

با آمدن  not بعد از  was  یا were گذشته استمراری را منفی می کنیم و با آمدن was  یا  were قبل از فاعل جمله سوالی می شود:

جمله سوالی جمله منفی جمله مثبت
Were you working? I was not working. I was working.
Were you eating? You were not eating. You were eating.
Was he typing? He was not typing. He was typing.
Was she washing the dishes? She was not washing the dishes. She was washing the dishes.
Were you (we) studying? You  were not studying. We were studying.
Were they joking? They were not joking. They were joking.
Was he(Reza) sleeping? Reza(he) was not sleeping Reza was sleeping..
Were they Writing? Mina and Reza were not writing. Mina and Reza were writing.

 

۲۳                                                           Term Two        EXERCISE 1

این جمله ها را به انگلیسی برگردانید:

۱ وقتی به اایستگاه رسید قطار در حال ترک کردن بود.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

۲- وقتی نامه را مینوشتم صدای بلندی را شنیدم.

…………………………………………………………………………………………….

۳- هنگامیکه شما تلویزیون تماشا می کردید م گلها را آب می دادم .

……………………………………………………………………………………..

۴-مادر دیروز تمام روز مشغول  گردگیری اتاق ها بود.

…………………………………………………………………………………………….

۵- دیشب روزنامه عصر را مطالعه نکردم.

…………………………………………………………………………………………….

این جمله را به فارسی برگردانید :

 ۱-They were singing when I came into the room.

    …………………………………………………………………………..

۲-While I was cooking the children were playing in the garden.

   ……………………………………………….

۳-How many times did you have lunch with your boss last month?

    …………………………………………………………………………..

۴-She fell down  while she was  running after a bus.

   ………………………….……………………………………….…….

۵-How old were you when you left your hometown?

  …………………………………………………….…………………………

Exercise II

با توجه به معنی جمله فعل داخل پرانتز را بزمان صحیح بنویسید:

۱-He always(play) ……………………..volley-ball on Friday.

2-Yesterday he(fall off) ………………his bike when he (cross) ……..……the street.

3-She (not play) ……………..with the other girls at school.

4-My friend and I ( stay) …………at home yesterday. We (not go) ……………. to school.

5-(do) …………….some exercise every day and (not smoke)…………………