گرامر ۱

۴۱                                                                     Term Four

 )مصدر بدون to(  Infinitive without ‘to

اگر در جمله دو فعل داشته باشیم که از افعال کمکی نباشند،فعل دوم به صورت مصدر و قبل از مصدر هم to می آید :

I like to learn English.

He wants to watch TV.

She went there to see her friend.

اما افعالی داریم که بعد از آنها مصدر بدون to به کار می رود. مانند:

make  به معنی وادار کردن:

She knew how to cover the scratch to make it look like new.

The nurse makes the patients obey the rules.

The police made the man pay for the damage.

see  :

I waved good-bye to you. You didn’t see me wave to you.

I saw her cross the street.

 

 hear :

A : Why didn’t you answer the phone?

B : Because I didn’t hear the phone ring.

 notice:

Did you notice anyone enter the room?

let :

Mother doesn’t let me go to the movies with Tom.

feel :

 I felt something crawl up my arm.

watch :

 I watched the snake creep up the tree.

help :

بعد از help هم مصدر بدون  to و هم مصدر با  to جایز است:

This box is too heavy. Will you help me carry it. بدون  to
They helped me to get out of the trouble. با to

41                                                                        Term Four

EXERCISE I

این جمله ها را به انگلیسی برگردانید :

۱- نمی خواستم بروم، شما مجبورم کردید بروم.

———————————————————— .

۲- بمن اجازه میدهید امروز کمی زودتر بروم؟

———————————————————— .

۳- او ترجیح میدهد امروز در خانه بماند.

————————————————————

۴-ما دیدیم از خانه بیرون رفت.

———————————————————— .

۵-شنیدم شما را دو بار صدا زد.

————————————————————

این جمله ها را به فارسی برگردانید :

۱- You have to attend the class regularly.

———————————————————— .

2- We asked him to produce a painting.

———————————————————— .

3- I didn’t hear her start shouting.

———————————————————— .

4- He says he will not let us play.

———————————————————— .

5-Can’t you hear the door-bell ring?

———————————————————— .

EXERCISE II

Put in ‘to’ where necessary:

1- Nobody has seen the little boy ——– enter the store.

2- I never asked him ——– attend the class.

3- We didn’t hear the vase ——-fall off the table.

4- I shall ask the teacher to let me —– leave the class a few minutes earlier.

5- Who likes —— have a sandwich?